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Abstract Detail

Applications of Plant Genomics

Miller, Allison [1], Londo, Jason [2], Harris, Zach [3], Kovacs, Laszlo [4], Klein, Laura [5], Ma, Qin [6], McDermaid, Adam [6], Migicovsky, ZoĆ« [7], Kwasniewski, Misha [8].

North American grapevines: diversity, diversification, and rootstock domestication.

Understanding mechanisms shaping phenotypic variation in plants is a fundamental goal in biology and the foundation of domestication and crop improvement. Perennial plants comprise an estimated 40% of domesticated species, 60% of seed plants, and 80% of tropical plant species, and have several key features that influence evolutionary processes in unique ways relative to annual systems, both in nature and in agriculture. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics and phenomics have enhanced current understanding of perennial plant diversity and evolution, including perennial crops. Here, I present ongoing work on the lesser-known half of the woody perennial crop equation, the rootstock, focusing on native North American grape species (Vitis spp.) in nature and in cultivation for rootstocks. First, I will present a phylogenomic framework for North American grapevine diversity. Second, I will introduce an ongoing experiment designed to study how rootstock diversity affects shoot system morphology in grafted grapevines. This work is taking place in an experimental vineyard in Mount Vernon, MO, where the grapevine cultivar ‘Chambourcin’ is growing on its own roots and is grafted to three different rootstocks (‘1103P’, ‘3309C’, ‘SO4’), all of which are derived from North American Vitis species and their hybrid derivatives. This set of four combinations is replicated 72 times in a randomized block experimental design with an irrigation treatment. To study the effects of root system on above ground traits we are conducting gene expression analyses and comprehensive scion phenotyping in the grafted ‘Chambourcin’ including berry chemistry, leaf shape, leaf ion concentration, leaf metabolites, and vine physiology. Analyses in the ‘Chambourcin’ vineyard demonstrate complex interactions among rootstock and irrigation on leaf shape; variation in ion concentration is influenced by rootstock, irrigation, and leaf position. Gene expression patterns reveal effects of rootstock x irrigation x time. This comprehensive, multi-year project demonstrates the importance of root system diversity for shoot system morphology and suggests future exploration of rootstock diversity is warranted.

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Related Links:
Vitis Underground Project Website

1 - Saint Louis University, Biology, St. Louis, Biology Extension Building, Saint Louis, MO, 63108, United States
2 - 630 W North St., Geneva, NY, 14456, United States
3 - Saint Louis University, Biology, 1008 Spring Avenue, Biology Extension Building, St. Louis, MO, 63132, USA
4 - Missouri State University, Biology, Springfield, MO, 65897, USA
5 - Saint Louis University, Biology, Biology Extension Building, Biology Extension Building, St. Louis, MO, 63132, United States
6 - South Dakota State University, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Science, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA
7 - Dalhousie University, Faculty of Agriculture, Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada
8 - University of Missouri , Grape and Wine Institute, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA

perennial crop
Crop wild relatives.

Presentation Type: Colloquium Presentations
Session: C13, Applications of Plant Genomics
Location: 104/Mayo Civic Center
Date: Wednesday, July 25th, 2018
Time: 3:00 PM
Number: C13006
Abstract ID:546
Candidate for Awards:None

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